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Cogito

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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Hello Europe


Činjenice o Evropi, Evropskoj uniji i životu na tom prostoru...


-Otvaram ovu temu s ciljem da sto vise priblizimo znanja o Evropi, Evropskim institucijama, Uniji... I to na engleskom jeziku.
Potreba da poznajemo i Evropu i njene institucije, pa i engleski jezik koliko i domacu istoriju, jezik ili obicaje, velika je i danas smo suoceni sa tom potrebom vise nego ikad.
Evropa je nasa buducnost i perspektiva, zar se ne slazemo?

-Naravno, temu nisam otvorio sa ciljem da se u njoj raspreda nekakva diskusija i vodi rasprava oko bilo cega, vec je mozemo smatrati INFORMATIVNOM, a i edukativnom. Cinjenica da je na engleskom jeziku joj daje jednu vecu dimenziju, jer smatram da nije lose, cak i potrebno, da se i na tom jeziku govori i komunicira.





-Datumi, ljudi, događaji:

19.9.1946
Winston Churchill calls for the creation of a United States of Europe.

5.5.1949
The Council of Europe is established.

9.5.1950
The Schuman Plan for a coal and steel community is announced - the birth of the European Union.

18.4.1951
Six countries sign the Treaty on the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

25.3.1957
The Treaties establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) are signed in Rome.

20.7.1963
The European Community steps on to the world stage: the first Yaoundé Convention.

1.7.1968
The customs union is completed.

24.4.1972
A European exchange rate system is set up and the currency "snake" introduced.

1.1.1973
First enlargement: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the EU.

7.7.1978
The European Monetary System (EMS) and the ECU is created.

7-10.6.1979
The first direct elections to the European Parliament are held.

1.1.1981
Greece becomes the tenth member of the EU.

14.6.1985
The Commission publishes its White Paper on the completion of the single market.

15.6.1985
The Schengen agreement on abolishing all border controls.

1.1.1986
Spain and Portugal join the EU.

17.2.1986
Single European Act signed .

15.6.1989
Summit in Madrid approves a three-stage plan for economic and monetary union and the Social Charter.

9.11.1989
The Berlin Wall comes down.

1.7.1990
The first stage of European Economic and Monetary Union begins.

21.11.1990
"Charter of Paris" confirms end of the Cold War.

10.12.1991
Maastricht summit: the Treaty on European Union is approved.

2.5.1992
The European Economic Area (EEA) is approved.

1.1.1993
The single European market comes into effect.

2.8.1993
Currency speculation provokes revision of the European Monetary System.

1.11.1993
The Maastricht Treaty on European Union comes into force. The European Union (EU) is created.

1.1.1994
The second stage of Economic and Monetary Union begins.

1.1.1995
Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU.

26.3.1995
Participants in the Schengen Agreement abolish controls on travellers crossing the borders between them.

15/16.12.1995
Summit in Madrid confirms 1 January 1999 as the starting date for the single currency, the euro.

29.3.1996
The 1996 Intergovernmental Conference opens in Turin, Italy.

17.6.1997
The Intergovernmental Conference ends with the Amsterdam summit: the Treaty of Amsterdam is adopted.

15.7.1997
The Commission publishes "Agenda 2000": proposals for enlargements and reforms.

13.12.1997
Luxembourg summit decides to start enlargement negotiations with 6 countries. 5 other countries are also in the accession process.

3.5.1998
Summit decides on the 11 countries to be part of the Economic and Monetary Union at its start.

1.1.1999
The third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union begins: euro introduced as currency.

1.1.2002
Euro notes and coins in circulation


19.9.1946
After the end of the Second World War, Europe still lies in ruins. In a speech in Zurich to the world's youth, the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill calls on Europe to put behind it the evils of nationalism and war and proposes the creation of "a kind of United States of Europe".

5.5.1949
Ten European countries combine to found the Council of Europe and pledge themselves to fostering European aims. The Council of Europe is the first European organisation set up after the end of the Second World War. It sets itself the tasks of defending human rights, parliamentary democracy and the rule of law, bringing social and legal standards into line and promoting awareness of a common European identity.

9.5.1950
In the spring of 1950, Europe stood on the edge of the abyss. The Cold War posed a very real threat of armed conflict between East and West. And though five years had passed since the end of the Second World War, reconciliation between the former enemies still seemed a long way off.The crucial question facing Europe was how to avoid the mistakes of the past and lay the foundations for lasting peace between nations so recently at war. The key to the problem was to put relations between France and Germany on a completely fresh footing. If closer ties could be forged between the two, it might provide an impetus for all the free states of Europe to build a shared destiny. But how could this be achieved?It was Jean Monnet, with his unique wealth of experience as negotiator and man of peace, who suggested an ambitious plan to the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, and the German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. His idea was to set up a joint coal and steel market under an independent authority, so creating a common sphere of interests between the two countries. Pooling the two key industries behind arms production would make any future war between them impossible. The proposal, officially announced by France on 9 May 1950, was unanimously welcomed by Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - the first part of what is now the European Union - was signed in April 1951, laying the foundation for practical progress in Europe.Every year the date of 9 May is celebrated as "Europe Day" - a date for popular festivities and events that underline the cooperation between peoples of Europe. The date for Europe Day was chosen in 1986 in memory of the declaration of 9 May 1950.

18.4.1951
With the conclusion of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands agree to pool their heavy industries. For the first time they give up a part of their national sovereignty to a European authority. Joint control of these key industries is meant to make any future war between the Member States impossible. European integration thus began as a peace initiative.

25.3.1957
The Schuman Plan from 1950 had led to the founding of a community with its own decision-making powers, but it only covered the coal and steel industries. There was a widespread feeling that the experiment should be extended to other areas. In response to the Cold War threat, new initiatives were launched in the fields of defence and political union, but public opinion proved hostile. Instead, the six ECSC Member States focused on economic integration and decided to widen their cooperation across the entire economy, with the aim of creating a common market.The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, signed in Rome on 25 March 1957, marked the start of a new stage in the process of European integration. It set up institutions and decision-making procedures to harness national interests towards a common goal. As a result the European Community became the focal point for further European integration.The Treaties of Rome came into force on 1 January 1958.

20.7.1963
For the first time the EC Member States jointly negotiate a major agreement on the world stage. The founder members of the European Community sign the Yaoundé Convention with former colonies, mostly in Africa. The agreement promises these countries commercial advantages and financial assistance, protecting the traditional ties between them and their European partners.


1.7.1968
On 1 August 1968 (eighteen months ahead of the timetable laid down in the EEC Treaty) the last customs barriers between the Member States came down, and they began charging uniform customs duties on imports from outside the Community. The customs union was in place.The lifting of customs duties within the Community was a spectacular success: trade between the EEC countries increased sixfold between 1958 and 1970, while their combined trade with the rest of the world trebled. Over the same period the Community's gross national product grew by 70 per cent. For the first time European companies had access to a continent-wide market, as in the United States, and were able to exploit the dynamic effect of open borders. The customs union also meant that ordinary people saw the practical benefits of European integration. Consumers enjoyed a wider choice of goods thanks to imports from other Community countries.Later on, in 1986, following the signing of the Single European Act, the Community set about removing other legal and tax barriers that hinder trade and pose an obstacle to the creation of a single market.

24.4.1972
The governments of the six EC Member States decide to restrict the amount by which exchange rates between EC currencies are allowed to vary to 2.25 per cent either way. This comes to be known as the "snake". Against the dollar the currencies are to remain flexible.


1.1.1973
Any European country may join the EU as long as it is prepared to accept unreservedly the principles and obligations set out in the founding Treaties. The main requirements for membership are that applicants must belong to the European continent, have a free-market economy and abide by the principles of democratic government and the rule of law.In January 1973 the EU expanded to take in Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Then in the 1980s, Greece, Portugal and Spain also joined this circle of democratic nations. Finally, in a third wave of accessions, Finland, Austria and Sweden became members in 1995. Thanks in part to the single market, the Union had become a bastion of stability in Europe.The European Union's expansion to fifteen members had given it greater influence and weight in the world. More than ever before, then, it needed effective decision-making procedures if it was to defend the common interests of its members, while at the same time preserving its great wealth of national and regional variety. Beyond this, the EU now faced the historic task of preparing for the accession of countries from central, south-eastern and eastern Europe and the Baltic. Already it had to begin thinking about ways of finding the resources needed to help them adjust their economic structures and how to adapt its own institutions so that it could still operate effectively once the number of members rises to 25 or more.

7.7.1978
The Member States decide to coordinate their monetary policies more closely and set up the European Monetary System (EMS). The EMS replaces the "snake" and is intended to create a zone of monetary stability. Within the EMS the currencies of the Member States are allowed to vary against one another only within narrow ranges. If a currency moves beyond the limits, the national banks intervene. The core element of the EMS is the European currency unit ecu. The system came into force on 1 January 1979.

viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

Cogito

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2

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

10.6.1979
On 7 and 10 June 1979 people across Europe went to the polls to elect their Members of the European Parliaments (MEPs) for the first time. Thereafter, direct elections to the European Parliament are held throughout the EU every five years.The European Parliament plays an important role in the institutional structure of the EU, speaking as the democratic voice of the people of Europe. Its powers have grown steadily over the years. In the early days of the Community it only had the right to be consulted, but today it shares decision-making in many areas on an equal footing with the Council. The institutions of the EU constantly have to weigh up different interests against one another, and they can only do so properly if they have the necessary powers and are evenly balanced. For almost fifty years the interplay of forces between the Council, Parliament, the Commission and the Court of Justice has helped to underpin the success of the European integration process.

14.6.1985
In the founding Treaties the Member States had already made a European single market one of their aims. Now, nearly twenty years later, the "White Paper on completing the internal market" provides the stimulus needed to make it a practical reality. The White Paper contains a list of measures which the legislators must adopt in order to give real substance to the four basic freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital. On the basis of the White Paper the Member States adopt the Single European Act setting the timetable for completion of the Single Market.

15.6.1985
Doing away with border controls inside Europe is a major success story, although it was not achieved through the Community, but thanks to an intergovernmental agreement. In the town of Schengen in Luxembourg, five states concluded an agreement, the key part of which was the provision that "internal frontiers may be crossed anywhere without controls on persons". These are Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Nine other EU countries joined later.


17.2.1986
By the end of the 1960s the EU Member States had abolished customs duties and quantitative restrictions between one another. Establishing the customs union marked the first major step towards a common market. But for many years after this early success a genuine single market remained just a distant goal. Differing national standards and regulations still hampered free trade - sometimes just as severely as customs duties and import quotas.
So in 1985 the Commission launched an ambitious plan to complete the single market, eventually leading to the adoption of the Single Act. This set a target date - 1 January 1993 - for full implementation of the four fundamental freedoms (free movement of goods, persons, services and capital). Making frequent use of majority voting to take decisions, the EU institutions succeeded in adopting the 300 or so directives that are necessary.
The Single Act linked completion of the single market with economic and social solidarity, treating them as interdependent goals. Structural policy measures were introduced to help backward regions and areas hard hit by technological change and industrial restructuring. The EU was given the task of promoting cooperation in research and development and ensuring that the social dimension of the single market is properly taken into account. The Single Act also strengthened the democratic side of the EU by giving the European Parliament new powers in decision-making.

15.6.1989
At their summit in Madrid the Heads of State or Government agree on a three-stage plan to establish Economic and Monetary Union. They also decide to add a social dimension to the single market programme. They agree on the "Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers".

9.11.1989
The Berlin Wall falls. The citizens of the German Democratic Republic are allowed to leave the country for the West. After more than 40 years the East-West division of Europe is finally at an end. On 3 October 1990, almost a year later, Germany is reunited. The five new Bundesländer become part of the European Union.

1.7.1990
During the first stage of Economic and Monetary Union the Member States liberalise the movement of capital and make an effort to coordinate their economic and monetary policies more closely.

21.11.1990
The "Charter of Paris" is adopted by 34 states attending the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe, setting the seal on the end of the division of Europe and the close of the Cold War. The signatories pledge themselves to democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights. Over 40 states from East and West now belong to the organisation, which has since been renamed the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

10.12.1991
The adoption of the Treaty of Maastricht marks the creation of the European Union. This move is meant to demonstrate the Member States' desire for Europe to be more than just an economic community; the hope is that it will eventually grow into a political union. Maastricht consolidates the European Community founded by the Treaties of Rome, as well as introducing an embryonic common foreign and security policy and instituting cooperation on justice and home affairs. The Economic and Monetary Union is also decided. The Treaty is signed by the foreign and finance ministers of the Member States on 7 February 1992 and comes into force on 1 November 1993.

2.5.1992
In Porto (Portugal) the twelve EC Member States and the members of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) - Austria, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Sweden, Switzerland and Liechtenstein - sign the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA). This extends the four freedoms of the single market to the entire European trading area, making it the largest single market in the world. The EEA Agreement came into force on 1 January 1994.

1.1.1993
The completion of the single European market means that the EC is now a unified trading area where persons, goods, services and capital enjoy guaranteed freedom of movement. With over 370 million consumers Europe is the largest single market in the industrialised world.

2.8.1993
During the 1980s the European Monetary System (EMS) had largely succeeded in keeping exchange rates stable. In 1992, however, the British pound and the Italian lira came under pressure to devalue and were forced out of the system. As speculative pressure on the EMS continues, the finance ministers decide to increase the permitted fluctuation range for exchange rates to 15 per cent.

1.11.1993
In November 1993 the Treaty on European Union - signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht - came into force. This clearly signalled Europe's ambition to be more than just an economic community. The aim was for the Member States to grow ever closer and eventually form a European Union. The Treaty on European Union rests on three "pillars":
The first pillar comprises the European Community and the institutions set up by the founding Treaties - the Commission, Parliament, Council and Court of Justice. Basically this means the single market and the common policies, and the Maastricht Treaty consolidates these structures. At the same time the new Treaty includes an embryonic common foreign and security policy (second pillar) and introduces cooperation on justice and home affairs (third pillar). This reflects the Member States' recognition that representing European interests more effectively in dealings with the rest of the world will benefit them all and that closer collaboration in these areas will afford their citizens better protection against organised crime and drug trafficking. For the ordinary citizen, however, perhaps the most noticeable change resulting from the Maastricht Treaty will be the launch of economic and monetary union and the introduction of the euro. From 1 January 1999 any Member State will be eligible to join, provided it meets the convergence criteria essential for the stability of the euro.The introduction of the euro is a tremendously important political step. Besides being the most tangible outward sign of the European Union, symbolising the fact that we are part of a united continent, a strong euro will be able to compete with the leading international currencies.

1.1.1994
The second stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) begins. It continues until 31 December 1998. During this time the Member States are to coordinate their economic and budgetary policies so that their national economies will be ready to embark on the third stage of EMU. Technical preparations for the introduction of the single currency get under way. The European Monetary Institute (EMI) sets to work preparing the monetary policy of the European Central Bank.

23.3.1995
The Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement sets out the measures needed in order to be able to lift controls on persons at internal borders between the signatories. It covers matters ranging from rules on the mutual recognition of visas to arrangements for police cooperation. To begin with, the implementing agreement comes into effect between Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal. Travellers crossing the borders between them are no longer subject to any checks.

16.12.1995
The European Council in Madrid approves the plans for the transition to the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union and sets the precise timetable for the introduction of the euro.

29.3.1996
The Intergovernmental Conference in 1996 marks the beginning of a crucial phase for the future of Europeanintegration. The aim is to lay the foundations for a European Union that is closer to its citizens, strong and capable of effective action, and ready for enlargement with new members.


viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

Cogito

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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

17.6.1997
The European Union is still evolving all the time. On 17 June 1997 the Heads of State or Government agreed on a new Treaty, the Treaty of Amsterdam, setting the seal on the outcome of the Intergovernmental Conference held in 1996/97. This was the third major overhaul of the Treaties on which the EC is founded.
The Intergovernmental Conference opened on 29 March 1996 in Turin, marking the beginning of a crucial phase for the future of European integration. The task was not just to review and amend the Treaties, as required by the Treaty of Maastricht, but to lay the foundations for bringing the European Union closer to its citizens, making it stronger, enabling it to act more effectively, and gearing it up for the arrival of new members.
The Treaty of Amsterdam has four main aims:
- to place employment and citizens' rights at the heart of the Union's activities,
- to remove the last remaining barriers to free movement and to strengthen security inside the EU,
- to give Europe a stronger voice in world affairs,
- to make the EU's institutional structure more efficient with a view to future enlargement.
Read more about the content of the Treaty of Amsterdam.
The new Treaty agreed in Amsterdam was formally signed on 2 October 1997. However, it still has to be ratified by all the Member States, which had not yet taken place at the time of publication of this CD-ROM.

15.7.1997
In "Agenda 2000" the European Commission publishes its opinion on the future enlargement of the Union and the individual candidates' applications for membership. It concludes that five of them - Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Estonia - are ready for accession to the European Union in the near future. It had already earlier been decided to include Cyprus in this group. The report also deals with the future of the EU agricultural and regional policy and how this can be financed.

13.12.1997
The EU summit follows the recommendation of the Agenda 2000 report and decides to start negotiations on accession to the EU with Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia. Five other applicant countries are included in an accession process which will also lead to membership - namely Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. It is unknown when accession can take place.

3.5.1998
The EU summit confirms that 11 EU countries fulfil the criteria for a healthy economy which are necessary to be part of the Economic and Monetary Union from 1.1.1999. These are Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland.

1.1.1999
The third stage of Economic and Monetary Union: the conversion rates of the participating currencies are fixed irrevocably, the European Central Bank starts to operate and the euro is introduced as currency - but in the transitional period of three years the old national currencies can still be used.

1.1.2002
Euro notes and coins enter into circulation. The old national notes and coins will gradually be withdrawn. By 1 July 2002 at the latest, changeover to the euro is complete.





viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

Cogito

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4

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

The road to European Union

The road to European Union

European integration began in 1950, when six countries joined forces to found the European Coal and Steel Community. Seven years later they decided to extend their cooperation to cover the entire economy and set up the European Economic Community.

Since then, the number of members has grown to fifteen. And under the Treaty of Maastricht the name was changed to the "European Union", (EU) the idea being to show that Europe is meant to be more than just an economic community.

However, the history of European integration is not yet a closed chapter. The European Union is still constantly evolving. Soon Europe will have a single currency. And the EU is already preparing to take in new members, mostly countries from central and eastern Europe. Precisely what the European Union will look like in twenty years' time, no one can tell. The signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997 set the European Union on course for the future, strengthening and consolidating its structures and gearing it up for coming enlargement.

You can:
- see the time line for the overview of the history of the EU
- go though a description of key dates in the history of the European Union
- read about the lives of the founding fathers; personalities who were important in shaping the history of the EU


9 May 1950: The birth of Europe

In the spring of 1950, Europe stood on the edge of the abyss. The Cold War posed a very real threat of armed conflict between East and West. And though five years had passed since the end of the Second World War, reconciliation between the former enemies still seemed a long way off.

The crucial question facing Europe was how to avoid the mistakes of the past and lay the foundations for lasting peace between nations so recently at war. The key to the problem was to put relations between France and Germany on a completely fresh footing. If closer ties could be forged between the two, it might provide an impetus for all the free states of Europe to build a shared destiny. But how could this be achieved?

It was Jean Monnet, with his unique wealth of experience as negotiator and man of peace, who suggested an ambitious plan to the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, and the German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. His idea was to set up a joint coal and steel market under an independent authority, so creating a common sphere of interests between the two countries. Pooling the two key industries behind arms production would make any future war between them impossible. The proposal, officially announced by France on 9 May 1950, was unanimously welcomed by Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.

The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - the first part of what is now the European Union - was signed in April 1951, laying the foundation for practical progress in Europe.

Every year the date of 9 May is celebrated as "Europe Day" - a date for popular festivities and events that underline the cooperation between peoples of Europe. The date for Europe Day was chosen in 1986 in memory of the declaration of 9 May 1950.


25 March 1957: The European Economic Community

The Schuman Plan from 1950 had led to the founding of a community with its own decision-making powers, but it only covered the coal and steel industries. There was a widespread feeling that the experiment should be extended to other areas. In response to the Cold War threat, new initiatives were launched in the fields of defence and political union, but public opinion proved hostile. Instead, the six ECSC Member States focused on economic integration and decided to widen their cooperation across the entire economy, with the aim of creating a common market.

The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, signed in Rome on 25 March 1957, marked the start of a new stage in the process of European integration. It set up institutions and decision-making procedures to harness national interests towards a common goal. As a result the European Community became the focal point for further European integration.

The Treaties of Rome came into force on 1 January 1958.


1 August 1968: The customs union

On 1 August 1968 (eighteen months ahead of the timetable laid down in the EEC Treaty) the last customs barriers between the Member States came down, and they began charging uniform customs duties on imports from outside the Community. The customs union was in place.

The lifting of customs duties within the Community was a spectacular success: trade between the EEC countries increased sixfold between 1958 and 1970, while their combined trade with the rest of the world trebled. Over the same period the Community's gross national product grew by 70 per cent. For the first time European companies had access to a continent-wide market, as in the United States, and were able to exploit the dynamic effect of open borders. The customs union also meant that ordinary people saw the practical benefits of European integration. Consumers enjoyed a wider choice of goods thanks to imports from other Community countries.

Later on, in 1986, following the signing of the Single European Act, the Community set about removing other legal and tax barriers that hinder trade and pose an obstacle to the creation of a single market.


viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

Cogito

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5

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

1 January 1973: First enlargement

Any European country may join the EU as long as it is prepared to accept unreservedly the principles and obligations set out in the founding Treaties. The main requirements for membership are that applicants must belong to the European continent, have a free-market economy and abide by the principles of democratic government and the rule of law.

In January 1973 the EU expanded to take in Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Then in the 1980s, Greece, Portugal and Spain also joined this circle of democratic nations. Finally, in a third wave of accessions, Finland, Austria and Sweden became members in 1995. Thanks in part to the single market, the Union had become a bastion of stability in Europe.

The European Union's expansion to fifteen members had given it greater influence and weight in the world. More than ever before, then, it needed effective decision-making procedures if it was to defend the common interests of its members, while at the same time preserving its great wealth of national and regional variety. Beyond this, the EU now faced the historic task of preparing for the accession of countries from central, south-eastern and eastern Europe and the Baltic. Already it had to begin thinking about ways of finding the resources needed to help them adjust their economic structures and how to adapt its own institutions so that it could still operate effectively once the number of members rises to 25 or more.


7-10 June 1979: First direct elections to the European Parliament

On 7 and 10 June 1979 people across Europe went to the polls to elect their Members of the European Parliaments (MEPs) for the first time. Thereafter, direct elections to the European Parliament are held throughout the EU every five years.

The European Parliament plays an important role in the institutional structure of the EU, speaking as the democratic voice of the people of Europe. Its powers have grown steadily over the years. In the early days of the Community it only had the right to be consulted, but today it shares decision-making in many areas on an equal footing with the Council.

The institutions of the EU constantly have to weigh up different interests against one another, and they can only do so properly if they have the necessary powers and are evenly balanced. For almost fifty years the interplay of forces between the Council, Parliament, the Commission and the Court of Justice has helped to underpin the success of the European integration process.


17 February 1986: The Single European Act

By the end of the 1960s the EU Member States had abolished customs duties and quantitative restrictions between one another. Establishing the customs union marked the first major step towards a common market. But for many years after this early success a genuine single market remained just a distant goal. Differing national standards and regulations still hampered free trade - sometimes just as severely as customs duties and import quotas.

So in 1985 the Commission launched an ambitious plan to complete the single market, eventually leading to the adoption of the Single Act. This set a target date - 1 January 1993 - for full implementation of the four fundamental freedoms (free movement of goods, persons, services and capital). Making frequent use of majority voting to take decisions, the EU institutions succeeded in adopting the 300 or so directives that are necessary.

The Single Act linked completion of the single market with economic and social solidarity, treating them as interdependent goals. Structural policy measures were introduced to help backward regions and areas hard hit by technological change and industrial restructuring. The EU was given the task of promoting cooperation in research and development and ensuring that the social dimension of the single market is properly taken into account. The Single Act also strengthened the democratic side of the EU by giving the European Parliament new powers in decision-making.


1 November 1993: The European Union

In November 1993 the Treaty on European Union - signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht - came into force. This clearly signalled Europe's ambition to be more than just an economic community. The aim was for the Member States to grow ever closer and eventually form a European Union. The Treaty on European Union rests on three "pillars":

The first pillar comprises the European Community and the institutions set up by the founding Treaties - the Commission, Parliament, Council and Court of Justice. Basically this means the single market and the common policies, and the Maastricht Treaty consolidates these structures. At the same time the new Treaty includes an embryonic common foreign and security policy (second pillar) and introduces cooperation on justice and home affairs (third pillar). This reflects the Member States' recognition that representing European interests more effectively in dealings with the rest of the world will benefit them all and that closer collaboration in these areas will afford their citizens better protection against organised crime and drug trafficking.

For the ordinary citizen, however, perhaps the most noticeable change resulting from the Maastricht Treaty will be the launch of economic and monetary union and the introduction of the euro. From 1 January 1999 any Member State will be eligible to join, provided it meets the convergence criteria essential for the stability of the euro.

The introduction of the euro is a tremendously important political step. Besides being the most tangible outward sign of the European Union, symbolising the fact that we are part of a united continent, a strong euro will be able to compete with the leading international currencies.


17 June 1997: Treaty of Amsterdam

The European Union is still evolving all the time. On 17 June 1997 the Heads of State or Government agreed on a new Treaty, the Treaty of Amsterdam, setting the seal on the outcome of the Intergovernmental Conference held in 1996/97. This was the third major overhaul of the Treaties on which the EC is founded.

The Intergovernmental Conference opened on 29 March 1996 in Turin, marking the beginning of a crucial phase for the future of European integration. The task was not just to review and amend the Treaties, as required by the Treaty of Maastricht, but to lay the foundations for bringing the European Union closer to its citizens, making it stronger, enabling it to act more effectively, and gearing it up for the arrival of new members.

The Treaty of Amsterdam has four main aims:

- to place employment and citizens' rights at the heart of the Union's activities,
- to remove the last remaining barriers to free movement and to strengthen security inside the EU,
- to give Europe a stronger voice in world affairs,
- to make the EU's institutional structure more efficient with a view to future enlargement.
Read more about the content of the Treaty of Amsterdam

The new Treaty agreed in Amsterdam was formally signed on 2 October 1997. However, it still has to be ratified by all the Member States, which had not yet taken place at the time of publication of this CD-ROM.


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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

zasluzni ljudi...

The founding fathers of the European Union

Konrad Adenauer
Sir Winston Churchill
Alcide de Gasperi
Walter Hallstein
Jean Monnet
Robert Schuman
Paul Henri Spaak
Altiero Spinelli


Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967)

The first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, who stood at the head of the newly-formed state from 1949-63, changed more than any other the face of post-war German and European history.

Like many politicians of his generation, Adenauer had already realised following the First World War that lasting peace could only be achieved through a united Europe. His experiences during the Third Reich - he was removed from office as the mayor of Cologne by the Nazis - served to confirm this opinion.

In only six years from 1949-55, Adenauer realised far-reaching foreign policy goals to bind Germany within the western alliance: membership of the Council of Europe (1951), foundation of the European Coal and Steel Community (1952), and Germany's entry into NATO (1955).

A cornerstone of Adenauer's foreign policy was the reconciliation with France. Together with French president Charles de Gaulle, a turning point in history was achieved: in 1963 the one-time arch-enemies Germany and France signed a treaty of friendship which became one of the milestones on the road to European integration.


Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

Churchill, a former army officer, war reporter and British Prime Minister (1940-45 and 1951-55), was one of the first to call for the creation of a 'United States of Europe'.Following the experience of the Second World War, he was convinced that only a united Europe could guarantee peace. His aim was to eliminate the European ills of nationalism and war-mongering once and for all.

He formulated his conclusions drawn from the lessons of history in his famous 'Speech to the academic youth' held at the University of Zurich in 1946: "There is a remedy which ... would in a few years make all Europe ... free and ... happy. It is to re-create the European family, or as much of it as we can, and to provide it with a structure under which it can dwell in peace, in safety and in freedom. We must build a kind of United States of Europe."

Thus the driving force behind the anti-Hitler coalition became an active fighter in Europe's cause.

Sir Winston Churchill also made a name for himself as a painter and writer; in 1953 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.


Alcide de Gasperi (1881-1954)

From 1945 up until 1953, Alcide de Gasperi, in his roles as Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, forged the path of Italy's internal and external policies in the post-war years.

He was born in the region of Trentino-Alto Adige (South Tyrol) which had, until 1918, belonged to Austria. Like other exceptional statesmen of his time, he campaigned actively for European unity. His experiences of fascism and war - he was imprisoned between 1926 and 1929 before finding asylum in the Vatican - led to his conviction that only the union of Europe could prevent their recurrence.

Time and again he promoted initiatives for the fusion of Western Europe, working on the realisation of the Marshall Plan and creating close economic ties with other European countries, in particular France. Furthermore, he supported the Schumann Plan for the foundation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and helped develop the idea of the common European defence policy.


Walter Hallstein (1901-1982)

Walter Hallstein was the first president of the European Commission from 1958 to 1969, a committed European and a decisive proponent of European integration.

In his opinion, the most important prerequisite for a successful political integration of Europe was the creation of common economic institutions. As president of the European Commission, Hallstein worked towards a rapid realisation of the Common Market. His energetic enthusiasm and his powers of persuasion furthered the cause of integration even beyond the period of his presidency. However, the speed of unification during the so-called Hallstein Period was legendary.

The one-time Secretary of State in the German Foreign Ministry originally attained international recognition through the Hallstein Doctrine of the 1950s, which shaped German foreign policy for years to come, and had at its core the linking of the young democracy into Western Europe.

Hallstein was also at one time professor of law at the universities of Rostock and Frankfurt.


Jean Monnet (1888-1979)

The French economic advisor and politician Jean Monnet dedicated himself to the cause of European integration. He was the inspiration behind the "Schuman Plan", which foresaw the merger of West European heavy industry.

Monnet was from the region of Cognac in France. When he left school at 16 he travelled internationally as a cognac dealer, later also as a banker. During both World Wars he held high positions involved with the coordination of industrial production in France and United Kingdom.

As top advisor of the French government, he was the main inspiration behind the famous "Schuman declaration" of 9 May 1950, which led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community and, as such, is considered to be the birth of the European Union. Between 1952-55 he was the first president of its executive body.

It would, however, be unjust to limit Monnet's influence to the economic sphere. His famous and much-quoted phrase was "We unite people, not states". Today's EU programmes for cultural and educational exchange follow in this tradition.


Robert Schuman (1886-1963)

The politician Robert Schuman, a qualified lawyer and French foreign minister between 1948 and 1952, is regarded as one of the founding fathers of European unity.

Originating from the French-German border region of Alsace, despite, or maybe as a result of his experiences in Nazi Germany, he recognised that only a lasting reconciliation with Germany could form the basis for a united Europe. Deported to Germany in 1940, he joined the French Resistance upon fleeing two years later. In spite of this he showed no resentment, when following the war he became foreign minister.

In cooperation with Jean Monnet he drew up the internationally renowned Schuman Plan, which he published on 9 May 1950, the date now regarded as the birth of the European Union. He proposed joint control of coal and steel production, the most important materials for the armaments industry. The basic idea was that whoever did not have control over coal and steel production would not be able to fight a war.

Schuman informed the German chancellor Adenauer of the plan; he immediately recognised the opportunity for a peaceful Europe and agreed. Shortly afterwards, the governments of Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands also reacted. The six states signed the agreement for the European Coal and Steel Community in Paris in April 1951. In this way, Europe began as a peace initiative.

Schuman also supported the formation of a common European defence policy, and was, from 1958-60, president of the European Parliament.


Paul Henri Spaak (1899-1972)

A European statesman - the long political career of the Belgian Paul Henri Spaak can succinctly be described as thus.

Lying about his age, he was accepted into the Belgian Army during World War One, and consequently spent two years as a German prisoner of war. In the Second World War, now as foreign minister, he attempted in vain to preserve Belgium's neutrality. Together with the government he went into exile, first to Paris, and later to London.

After the liberation of Belgium, Spaak joined the government, and served both as Foreign Minister and as Prime Minister. Even during World War Two he had formulated plans for a merger of the Benelux countries, and directly after the war he campaigned for the unification of Europe, supporting the European Coal and Steel Community and a European defence community.

For Spaak, uniting countries through binding Treaty obligations were the most effective means of guaranteeing peace and stability. He was able to help achieve these aims as president of the first full meeting of the United Nations (1946) and as General Secretary of NATO (1957-61).

Spaak was a leading figure in formulating the content of the Treaty of Rome. At the so-called "Messina Conference" in 1955 the six participating governments appointed him as president of the working committee that prepared the Treaty.


Altiero Spinelli (1907-1986)

The Italian politician Altiero Spinelli was one of the fathers of the European Union. He was the leading figure behind the European Parliament's complete proposal for a Treaty on a federal European Union - the so-called Spinelli Plan. This was in 1982 adopted by an overwhelming majority in the parliament and provided an important inspiration for the strengthening of the EU Treaties in the 1980s and 90s.

As a 17 year old, Spinelli had joined the Communist Party, as a consequence of which he was imprisoned by the fascist regime between 1927 and 1943. At a conference of European resistance in early 1944 he was one of the initiators of a proposal for a European Manifest. At the end of the war, he founded the federal European movement in Italy.

In the role of advisor to personalities like de Gasperi, Spaak and Monnet, he worked for European unification. A trained juror, he also furthered the European cause in the academic field, and founded the Institute for International Matters in Rome.

As a member of the European Commission he took over the area of internal policy from 1970 to 1976. For three years he served as a Member of Parliament for the Italian Communist Party before being elected to the European Parliament in 1979.
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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Living

Living abroad

Citizens of the Union, whether they are workers, self-employed people, pensioners or students, may live and work anywhere in the EU. And of course they may take their families with them.


Right of residence for workers

If you get a job in another EU country you are legally entitled to a residence permit, even if the job is only part-time.

Nationals of EU Member States still need a residence permit if they intend to spend more than three months in another EU country Although you are legally entitled to a residence permit and it is only a formality, you still have to apply for it.

If you are working in another EU country, all you have to do to get a residence permit is produce an identity card or passport and proof of employment. Workers normally produce their contract of employment or a certificate from their employer.


Studying in another EU country

EU citizens can study anywhere they like within the European Union. Students from other EU countries must not be discriminated against in access to courses, the payment of fees or during the course of their studies, compared with students from the host country.

Students from EU Member States are legally entitled to a residence permit, provided they meet three conditions:

- they must have been accepted by a college or university and be enrolled there,

- they must have health insurance,

- they must be able to satisfy the authorities that they have enough money to live on. "Enough" is anything over the national social security threshold.

If students meet all these requirements, the national authorities in the host country cannot refuse to let them stay. The most they can do is make them pay the same fee for the issue of identity papers as their own nationals. They are entitled to stay in the country for as long as their course lasts.

The Directive on the right of residence for students only applies if the students are in the other Member State solely in order to study. If they get a job, they are covered by the EU rules on freedom of movement. Like any "normal" workers, they must produce their contract of employment or a certificate from their employer. Students may not be prevented from taking a job. Students’ families are also entitled to stay in the country and get a job without special formalities.


Pensioners: a place in the sun

Pensioners can spend their declining years anywhere in the European Union. The only condition for obtaining a residence permit is to have health insurance and an income which is above the threshold for social assistance payments.

The 1992 "right of residence" Directive gives pensioners, too, the right to live anywhere they wish within the European Union. Their right to live in another EU country is conditional on two things: they must be able to support themselves financially and they must have health insurance. The first condition is met if their income is sufficient for them not to be dependent on welfare benefits in their new country. You can find out what the minimum level of income is from the Member States’ consulates. All that is needed by way of proof is a copy of the decision granting a pension.

Anyone who is a member of a statutory health insurance scheme for pensioners is also covered in other EU Member States. Before moving abroad, however, it is essential to tell your home health insurance scheme you are going, otherwise you could find you are not covered. Take care: do not withdraw from the scheme! You are still a member of the health insurance scheme in your own country, but if you fall ill the statutory health insurance in your new country foots the bill.

If both these conditions - income and insurance - are met, the authorities must give you a residence permit. These are normally valid for five years and can be extended. You should apply to the foreign authorities for a residence permit after your arrival in the country.

To avoid surprises, always check with the foreign embassy before you move whether you will have to pay tax and, if so, how much it is likely to be.


And the family comes too

If you get a job in another EU country you can take your family with you. Members of a worker’s family enjoy a "derived" right to live in the country where his or her job is, even if they are not EU nationals themselves.

Family members of Union citizens can be entitled to a residence permit either on their own account or on the basis of their relationship with the EU citizen.

- people who are in work, or who have an adequate income, are entitled in their own right,

- people who do not themselves meet the requirements of the EU legislation but are family members of people who are entitled in their own right, have a "derived" right to residence.

"Family members" means husband or wife and children under the age of 21, or dependent children. Relatives in the ascending line (parents, grandparents) count as family members if they are supported by someone with the right of residence on their own account.

If you are living in an EU country on the basis of a "derived" right to residence, your residence permit will be valid for the same period as that held by the person from whom you derive your right. If, for any reason, the person from whom the family members derive their right of residence loses his or her entitlement, the "derived" right ends too. The same applies if the relationship ends (divorce) or offspring over the age of 21 no longer receive support.

In addition, before the first residence permit can be issued to family members, proof is required that the family has sufficient space to live in.

The rules on the right of residence for family members also apply in principle to people who are not nationals of a Member State of the European Union. These people may need a visa the first time they enter the country.


European and local elections - EU citizens vote where they live

For elections to the European Parliament EU citizens can vote and stand for election in the Member State where they live, even if they are not nationals of that country. The exact details of how this active and passive voting right works are laid down by national electoral law. The individual EU Member States still decide things like the minimum voting age.

Citizens of other EU countries are allowed to take part in European elections on the same terms as a country’s own nationals; the only additional requirement is that they may not at the same time vote in their country of origin.

Lest anyone should hit on the idea of voting twice - in his country of origin and his country of residence - anyone who intends to vote or stand for election in another EU country must submit a declaration in the country where he lives to the effect that he will not vote or stand for election in any other Member State. The Member States swap information on electoral rolls and lists of candidates.

Union citizens can also vote and stand as candidates in local elections in the Member State where they live.


Cars: European type-approval

In 1996 an EU directive introducing a general EU type-approval for motor vehicles entered into force. This means that manufacturers now only need to apply for a single type-approval for a particular vehicle which will then cover the entire European market. So no more hassle registering your car in another EU country.

In the past, motor vehicle type-approval applied only at national level. All that is finished with now. If you are importing a new car from another EU country you no longer have to make expensive technical conversions. Special type-approval is often still required in the case of older models, though.

Registration and road-worthiness testing of passenger vehicles still apply only to the territory of the individual Member States, however. The registration procedure is accordingly still under national control. There will be no European number plates, just the national plates as before. If you import a car it must be registered at the place where you live. This means the place where you normally reside, not your second residence.

If you are going to be abroad for a while, the car can continue to be registered in your home country provided you keep your regular residence there. However, this is only possible for up to six months - if you want to continue to use your car at your second or holiday home beyond that time you will, as a rule, have to register it, unless the authorities on the spot are prepared to grant an extension.


One driving licence for the whole of Europe

On 1 July 1996 the EU driving licence Directive entered into force. In future, driving licences will be issued on the basis of the same driving test, and using the same categories, throughout the EU.

The European driving licence introduces important changes. The previous national driving licence groups are replaced by the European categories A, B, C, D and E.

In category A (motorcycles) there will in future be a driving licence in stages. To drive a car you will need a category B driving licence, which allows you to drive vehicles up to 3.5 tonnes in weight and with not more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat.

Anyone wishing to drive a vehicle with a total weight of more than 3.5 tonnes will need a category C European heavy goods vehicle licence. A category D driving licence is needed to carry passengers in a vehicle with more than eight seats, while category E concern trailers.

These changes do not make much difference to people with a conventional national driving licence. Their old licence will continue to be valid after the Directive has been incorporated into national law. Anyone who wishes to do so, however, will be able to exchange his or her driving licence for a new Community model. Comprehensive rules will ensure that drivers do not lose their acquired rights when they exchange licences.Since 1996, driving licences issued in any Member State have been valid throughout the Union. The earlier requirement to exchange your driving licence if you were spending several years in another EU Member State no longer applies.

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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Slika jedinstvene Evrope:
Cogito je dodao/la ovu sliku:
  • evropa.gif
viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

zanimljivo i vazno

The EU in the world at large

For over fifty years Western Europe have enjoyed peace and prosperity thanks to the process of European unification. The more the EU Member States grow together, the greater the responsibility that falls on the Union, in Europe and the world outside.

With the collapse of the Communist system in the former eastern bloc, the success of the EU has made it a model and a magnet for the countries of central and eastern Europe. One of the European Union’s priority tasks is to offer these countries a future and to give them access to stability and prosperity.

Elsewhere, a tightly woven network of bilateral and international agreements has enabled the EU to build up relations with almost every country in the world. With many countries the Union has signed agreements providing not only for trade and economic links but also for political cooperation.

Only a strong community of States, secure within but open to the outside, can meet its growing responsibilities to the world as a whole. This is why the Member States established the European Union in 1992, thereby embarking on the course towards a Common Foreign and Security Policy.


The Union as a trading partner

The single market is not a "Fortress Europe." Far from it! The EU depends on international trade being as open as possible. The Union conducts a common trade policy governing the movement of goods to and from other countries.

The EU enjoys trade relations with countries all over the world, from the USA to Vietnam, with industrialised countries and developing countries.

With a few exceptions, all the developing countries have signed agreements with the Community providing for favourable trading conditions and financial support. Special trade agreements also exist between the Community and the countries of central and eastern Europe. The European Union has a powerful voice at international negotiations on the liberalisation of world trade organised by the WTO.



Development cooperation

From Mexico to the Ivory Coast to Laos, the European Union supports economic development in countries in almost all parts of the world. The Union has concluded special agreements with countries in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, central and eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America. These agreements often involve more than economic cooperation and preferential terms of trade; they cover social, political and cultural affairs as well. The idea is to dovetail the Union’s development cooperation activities with those of the Member States.


The Lomé Convention

The EU has concluded a special kind of agreement with 71 States in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (the ACP countries). As well as providing the ACP countries with financial support, the Convention grants them preferential terms of trade. They have free access to the single market for industrial goods and can sell agricultural products to the EU on particularly preferential terms.

The Lomé Convention running 1991-2001 is the fourth of its kind. It is important to remember that respect for the principles of democracy and human rights are a condition for aid.


A long tradition of cooperation

When the predecessor of the EU, the European Economic Community was founded in 1957, it was agreed that the former colonies of some EEC Member States should enjoy associated status. These overseas countries and territories had particularly close economic relations with Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands. The idea was that membership of the EEC should not harm trade with such overseas countries.

For this reason, a cooperation agreement was signed, which was later named after the capital of Togo, Lomé. It makes arrangements for partnership and cooperation in economic, political and social matters between the EU and what are now the 71 ACP States.


Trade benefits

Above all the Lomé Convention offers the ACP States trade benefits. They can export an unlimited quantity of industrial goods to the EU single market duty free, whilst access is greatly facilitated for their agricultural products. Fluctuations in their earnings from the export of agricultural produce are offset through the STABEX system, with compensation paid from the European Development Fund.

Mining companies receive similar compensation through the SYSMIN system. The EU also guarantees ACP States that it will purchase up to 1.3 million tonnes of sugar at EU prices.

In addition, the European Development Fund grants assistance towards national or multinational economic and social development programmes and the ACP States receive loans from the European Investment Bank (EIB).


Asia and Latin America

Asia is just as important for Europe now as it was at the time of the spice trade and the silk route. The economic reasons are self-evident: half of the world’s population lives in Asia and a quarter of all global production comes from there. Latin America is also important in terms of world trade.

The European Union has concluded trade agreements with the countries of Asia and Latin America. Cooperation with these countries covers areas like economic cooperation, political dialogue, technical support for the least developed countries.

Programmes have also been agreed in specific sectors, for example an energy programme for the ASEAN countries, a programme for the transfer of know-how in the field of waste management, cooperation between higher education establishments.


Eastern Europe

Since 1989 the tumultuous events in central and eastern Europe have redrawn the political map of the continent. Far-reaching political and economic reforms are under way. Europe is growing together.

The EU is supporting economic reconstruction in the former Communist countries of central and eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union, by means of extensive aid programmes. However, the best way to help central and eastern Europe is to open the single market to these countries and to this end the Union has concluded "Europe Agreements" with most of the countries concerned.


Support during the transition to a market economy: PHARE and TACIS

The European Union launched two wide-ranging aid programmes to support the transformation from planned to market economies in the central and eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union:

Phare is the EU aid programme for central and eastern Europe. It supports reforms in key areas of the economy such as energy, manufacturing, training, financial services, agriculture and environmental protection. In all these areas State concerns must be restructured and privatised, entrepreneurial initiative promoted and legislation and tax laws reformed.

Phare programme runs for several years and includes investment aid for infrastructure projects and for cooperation between regions. All this means that PHARE is no longer just the largest aid programme for non-member countries in our time; it is also an important means of preparing the central and eastern European countries for accession to the EU.

Tacis is the EU initiative designed to help the independent States of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia make the transition from planned to market economies. It provides funds for the transfer of information and consultancy work. TACIS is currently supporting the reform of government bodies, the restructuring of State enterprises, welfare schemes and education systems.

It also finances infrastructure projects involving transport and telecommunications networks and promotes nuclear safety and environmental protection projects.


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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

U skladu sa Najavom: Procitati pre otvaranja nove teme ! mislim da bi bilo lepo i korisno da pokretač pojasni ideje pokretaja ove teme, da bi se i ostali učesnici mogli na pravi način uključiti u nju.

Pozdrav!
Ako nemaš iskustva-prevariće te , a ako imaš - onda već jesu , onda već jesu , onda već jesu... ;)

i ... bode mi oči

... al lahko je tebi kad imas olovku sa gumicom

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Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Europe Agreements

The European Union has taken account of the new order in Europe and has already concluded Europe Agreements with Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. A trade and cooperation agreement has also been signed with Albania, giving that country the prospect of association in the not-too-distant future.

What is new about the Europe Agreements is that they cover much more than just economic and trade cooperation. For the first time, political dialogue and cultural cooperation are included in EU association agreements. The stated aim is the accession of the associated partners to the EU and all ten non-member countries that have signed Europe Agreements have applied to join the Union.


The Euro-Mediterranean partnership

The Mediterranean countries are important trading partners for the European Union. As part of its Mediterranean policy, the EU has been working with them for a long time and has concluded association and cooperation agreements with many of them. In 1995 in Barcelona the Euro-Mediterranean partnership was sealed, creating the framework for wide-ranging cooperation.

The EU wishes to promote security and stability in the region and therefore the Euro-Mediterranean partnership covers not only issues linked to economy and trade. The partnership also includes cooperation about social and cultural aspects and a political dialogue about questions like human rights and the rule of law and democracy. As part of this, the EU is paying for large assistance programmes for the benefit of the partner countries.

The Euro-Mediterranean partnership comprises the following non-EU countries: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey.


The EU as a bulwark of stability

The European Union has been an important factor behind the fact that Western Europe has been able to live in peace and prosperity for over 50 years. In a more and more internationalised world the EU has an increased responsibility for also ensuring the same advantages to its neighbours and to countries in other parts of the world.


Europe’s security framework

Since the collapse of Communism and the Warsaw Pact around 1990, Europe’s security framework has been radically different from what it was before. The Cold War is over and the walls between East and West have come tumbling down. A common framework now needs to be developed to guarantee stability and security throughout Europe.

Although security policy has changed in the nineties, NATO remains a keystone of the European security structure. Territorial defence is still only thought of in the context of the transatlantic alliance between a majority of EU Member States and USA and Canada. However, it is widely conceived that European States must shoulder greater responsibility for their own security.

This is why, with the Maastricht Treaty from 1993 the Heads of State and Government of the EU Member States agreed to pursue the long-term aim of developing a common defence policy. The idea is that the Western European Union (WEU), which will prepare and implement the decisions of the European Union in this area, is to be developed into the defence component of the European Union and will become the European pillar in NATO.


Peacekeeping

The main priority for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is peace-keeping, not just in Europe but throughout the world. The EU has a key role to play in shaping the new European security framework, for the concept of security has been expanded to include economic and social factors as well as its political and military aspects.

For this reason, the Maastricht Treaty sets out the long-term aim of a common defence policy, to be developed as part of the CFSP and possibly ultimately leading to common defence. The Western European Union (WEU) will prepare and implement the decisions of the European Union in this field. In practice, the WEU will initially concentrate on crisis management.

The Amsterdam Treaty signed in 1997 strengthens the possibilities in this respect.


Human rights
The European Union explicitly recognises fundamental rights. The Treaty on European Union states that "the Union shall respect the fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, as general principles of Community law."

The Treaty of Amsterdam, signed in June 1997, confirmed the protection of fundamental rights as a specific Treaty objective. In future, all citizens will be able to appeal to the European Court of Justice if institutions impinge on their fundamental rights. If a Member State commits "serious and persistent" violations of these rights, the European Council may decide to suspend certain rights of that Member State. The European Union will also be able to take steps to prevent discrimination on the grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

The promotion of human rights all over the world is to an increasing degree part of the EU’s relation with other countries.


Democracy

The European Union is organised - and this also applies to each of the Member States - in accordance with the principles of democracy. Under the umbrella of the EU, the democratically elected governments of the Member States sit permanently "around one table." They attempt to find compromises that benefit everyone. No country or government in the European Union may be at a disadvantage in relation to the others. The EU institutions ensure that the European rules are also observed.

The democratic representative of the citizens of the European Union is the European Parliament. While it does not yet enjoy the same rights as national parliaments, its powers have gradually been extended over the years, and in many areas nothing may be done without the European Parliament’s approval.

The EU promotes democracy in other countries, too, assisting the process of democratisation in central and eastern European countries and in other associated States, such as those in the Mediterranean region.
viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

juskos

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(10)

  • »juskos« je muško

Postovi: 846

Datum registracije: 29.07.2002

Lokacija: KONYA/ TÜRKIYE/srcem u Novom Pazaru

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12

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003



A sta cemo mi futovi sto ne razumijemo ovaj engljeshki...

Vidi ti ovo na nas prevedi da te razumije cio pazar i jos pride dunjaluk.... ?( ?( ?(
Velicina jednog naroda se ne meri brojem ljudstva vec brojem alima

Elvinov babo

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  • »Elvinov babo« je muško

Postovi: 686

Datum registracije: 15.05.2003

Lokacija: Stockholm

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13

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Valla Cogito...

Ako nastavis ovako cini mi se da ces u ovoj temi jedino ti upisivat priloge,a da je na nas jezik mozda bi i ja suhnuo koju...

A ono ti kako hoces burko...
Zaboravi na probleme,sutra dolaze novi.

Cogito

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  • »Cogito« je muško
  • »Cogito« je autor ove teme

Postovi: 293

Datum registracije: 23.06.2003

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14

Četvrtak, 24. Juli 2003

Pozdrav za predhodnika,
Tema i jeste koncipirana da bude na Engleskom, rekao sam na pocetku nije za rasprave, a mislim da nije lose da imamo i na engleskom nesto, s' obzirom da kad preskocimo granice, nema vise naseg ili ovog ili onog... onda moramo svi na engleski prinudno uskocit... Prihvatam da ima dosta koji nisu vicni poznavanj engleskog, ali neka ne zamere, oni mogu postovati neke slike o Evropi... lepotama u zemljama Evropsee unije...

pozdrav svima
viskoznost nije isto što i gustina :(

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